An application of Tetraclass model for evaluating ecotourism service quality in Vietnam

Thuy, V. T. N., Tuu, H. H., Llosa, S., & Thao, H. D. P. (2020). An application of Tetraclass model for evaluating ecotourism service quality in Vietnam. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 20(3), 300–316.

This study extends SERVQUAL and ECOSERV models to include interaction and experience attributes in an ecotourism context and to identify how ecotourism service attributes can affect Vietnamese ecotourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction using Tetraclass approach. This study uses a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show 47 ecotourism service quality attributes belonging to 10 dimensions and four categories as Basic, Key, Plus, and Secondary. The findings also indicate the 10 most important attributes contributing to ecotourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction and confirm the complex relationships of ecotourism service attributes on ecotourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. While ecotourism has become one of the most important subsectors in the tourism industry, understanding ecotourists’ evaluations and improving their satisfaction with ecotourism is still mostly underexplored, in particular, in the context of a developing country like Vietnam. Therefore, this study helps managers understand effective ways to improve customers’ satisfaction and eliminate their dissatisfaction. However, it ignores customers’ affective moods. Thus, future studies could benefit to include these aspects to gain a better understanding about the phenomenon.


Tetraclass model, satisfaction and dissatisfaction, asymmetrical effects, ecotourism, Vietnam